Taoism or Daoism is a philosophical or religious tradition of Chinese origin which emphasises living in harmony with the Dao. The Dao is a fundamental idea in most Chinese philosophical schools; in Daoism, it denotes the principle that is the source, pattern and substance of everything that exists. The roots of Daoism go back at least to the 4th century BCE. Today, the Daoist tradition is one of the five religious doctrines officially recognised in the People's Republic of China.


Confucianism also known as Ruism, is a system of thought and behaviour originating in ancient China. Confucianism was suppressed during the Legalist and autocratic Qin dynasty (221–206 BCE). Confucius considered himself a recodifier and retransmitter of the theology and values inherited from the Shang (c. 1600–1046 BCE) and Zhou dynasties (c. 1046–256 BCE) for the Warring States period.


Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God (Allah) and that Muhammad is a messenger of God. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and has guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs. Muslims consider the Quran in its Arabic to be the unaltered and final revelation of God and believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith.


Jainism also known as Jain Dharma. Followers of Jainism are called "Jains". The first of these was Rishabhanatha, who according to Jain tradition lived millions of years ago, the twenty-third was Parshvanatha in 900 BCE and the twenty-fourth was the Mahāvīra around 500 BCE. Their canonical religious texts are called Agamas. The most important annual Jain festival is called the Paryushana by Svetambaras and Dasa lakshana parva by the Digambaras.


Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population. It originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Buddhist traditions share the goal of overcoming suffering and the cycle of death and rebirth, either by the attainment of Nirvana or through the path of Buddhahood.


Christianity is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. It is the world's largest religion with about 2.4 billion followers. Christians believe that Jesus is the Christ, whose coming as the messiah was prophesied in the Hebrew Bible, called the Old Testament in Christianity and chronicled in the New Testament. Christianity began as a Second Temple Judaic sect in the 1st century in the Roman province of Judea.


Shinto or kami-no-michi is a religion originating from Japan and classified as an East Asian religion by scholars of religion. Scholars sometimes call its practitioners Shintoists. Shinto is primarily found in Japan, where there are around 80,000 public shrines. A major conceptual focus in Shinto is ensuring purity by cleansing practices of various types including ritual washing or bathing.


Zoroastrianism or Mazdayasna is one of the world's oldest continuously practiced religions. The current number of Zoroastrians at around 110,000–120,000, with most living in India and in Iran. It is a multi-tendency faith centred on a dualistic cosmology of good and evil and an eschatology predicting the ultimate conquest of evil with theological elements of henotheism, monotheism and polytheism.


Judaism is an ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people. Judaism is the tenth largest religion in the world with between 14.5 and 17.4 million adherents worldwide. It evolved from ancient Israelite religions around 500 BCE and is considered one of the oldest monotheistic religions. About 43% of all Jews reside in Israel and another 43% reside in the United States and Canada, with most of the remainder living in Europe, and other minority groups spread throughout Latin America, Asia, Africa, and Australia.


Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma (way of life) and widely practiced in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. The "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the end of the Vedic period (1500 to 500 BCE). Hinduism is the world's third largest religion and its followers, known as Hindus, constitute about 1.15 billion or 15–16% of the global population. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world.